Appendix:English pronunciation

EnglishDeasaich

The following tables show the IPA and enPR/AHD symbols which are used to represent the various sounds of the English language. The sounds of Received Pronunciation (RP, UK), General American pronunciation (GenAm, US), Australian English (AuE) and New Zealand English (NZE) are shown.

For vowels in other dialects, see Wikipedia's IPA chart for English.

An image of an old version of these tables is available.

VowelsDeasaich

This vowel table lists both monophthongs and diphthongs.

IPA enPR / AHD examples
  RP   GenAm   CanE   AuE   NZE
ɑː ɑ ɒ ɐː ä father, palm
æ ɛ ă bad, cat, ran[1][2]
æɹ ɛɹ ăr carry
æɪ æe ā day, pain
ɑː ɑɹ ɐː är arm, bard
ɛə / ɛː(ɹ) ɛɹ âr hair, there[3]
ɛ e ĕ bed[4]
ɛɹ ĕr merry
i ē ease, see
ɪ ɘ ĭ sit, city, bit
ɪ i city, very, ready
ɪ̈ , ɨ roses
ɪə ɪɹ ɪə ĭr, îr near, here, Sirius
aɪ (ʌɪ) ɑe ɑe ī my, rice
ɒ ɑ ɒ ɔ ɒ ŏ not, wasp
əʊ əʉ ɐʉ ō no, go, hope
ɔə oɹ, ɔɹ ɔɹ ōr hoarse
ɔː ɔ ɒ ô law, caught
ɔː ɔɹ ôr horse
ɔɪ oe oi boy, noise
ʊ o͝o, ŏŏ put, foot
ʊə ʊɹ ʊə ʉə o͝or, ŏŏr poor, tour, tourism
u ʉː o͞o, ōō lose, soon, through
aʊ (ʌʊ) æo ou house, now
ʌ a ɐ ŭ run, enough, up
ɜː ɝ, əɹ ɝː ɜː ɵː ûr fur, bird
ə ɘ ə about
ə ɚ ə ɘ ər winner, enter[5]
  1. Sometimes transcribed
    AEF: /a/
    for RP, for example in dictionaries of the Oxford University Press.
  2. See bad–lad split for more discussion of this vowel in Australian English.
  3. Alternative symbols used in British dictionaries include
    AEF: /ɛː/
    (Oxford University Press) and
    AEF: /eə/
    .
  4. Sometimes transcribed
    AEF: /e/
    for RP, for example in Collins English Dictionary.
  5. Sometimes transcribed for GA as [əɹ] or (for transcriptions that represent both rhotic and non-rhotic pronunciations) as [ə(ɹ)].

ConsonantsDeasaich

IPA enPR / AHD examples
b b but, web, rubble
ch chat, teach, nature
d d dot, idea, nod
f f fan, left, enough
ɡ g get, bag
h h ham
ʍ (hw)[1] hw which
j joy, agile, age
k k cat, tack
x ᴋʜ loch (in Scottish English)
l l left
Lua error in Mòideal:parameters at line 57: attempt to call upvalue 'plain' (a nil value).[2] l little
m m man, animal, him
Lua error in Mòideal:parameters at line 57: attempt to call upvalue 'plain' (a nil value).[2] m spasm, prism
n n note, ant, pan
Lua error in Mòideal:parameters at line 57: attempt to call upvalue 'plain' (a nil value).[2] n hidden
ŋ ng singer, ring
p p pen, spin, top, apple
ɹ[3] r run, very
s s set, list, ice
ʃ sh ash, sure, ration
t t ton, butt
θ th thin, nothing, moth
ð th this, father, clothe
v v voice, navel
w w wet
j y yes
z z zoo, quiz, rose
ʒ zh vision, treasure
  1. Some phonologists dispute that Lua error in Mòideal:parameters at line 57: attempt to call upvalue 'plain' (a nil value). is a distinct phoneme in English, and use Lua error in Mòideal:parameters at line 57: attempt to call upvalue 'plain' (a nil value). instead.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Some phonologists dispute that Lua error in Mòideal:parameters at line 57: attempt to call upvalue 'plain' (a nil value)., Lua error in Mòideal:parameters at line 57: attempt to call upvalue 'plain' (a nil value)., Lua error in Mòideal:parameters at line 57: attempt to call upvalue 'plain' (a nil value). are distinct phonemes in English, and use Lua error in Mòideal:parameters at line 57: attempt to call upvalue 'plain' (a nil value)., Lua error in Mòideal:parameters at line 57: attempt to call upvalue 'plain' (a nil value)., Lua error in Mòideal:parameters at line 57: attempt to call upvalue 'plain' (a nil value). instead.
  3. Often written Lua error in Mòideal:parameters at line 57: attempt to call upvalue 'plain' (a nil value)., especially in works that cover only English, even though the sound is not a trill.

Other symbolsDeasaich

A stress mark is placed before the syllable that is stressed in IPA and after it in enPR / AHD.

IPA enPR
(AHD)
indicates
Lua error in Mòideal:parameters at line 57: attempt to call upvalue 'plain' (a nil value). (Lua error in Mòideal:parameters at line 57: attempt to call upvalue 'plain' (a nil value).a) ʹ (aʹ) primary stress, as in rapping /ˈɹæpɪŋ/
Lua error in Mòideal:parameters at line 57: attempt to call upvalue 'plain' (a nil value). (Lua error in Mòideal:parameters at line 57: attempt to call upvalue 'plain' (a nil value).a) ' (a') secondary stress (or sometimes tertiary stress), as in battleship /ˈbætl̩ˌʃɪp/
aLua error in Mòideal:parameters at line 57: attempt to call upvalue 'plain' (a nil value).a a-a division between syllables
 ̩ syllabic consonant, as in ridden [ˈɹɪdn̩]
ʔ glottal stop, as in uh-oh /ˈʌʔoʊ/, [ˈʌ̆ʔ˦oʊ˨]

Note: The EnPR and print AHD marks are formatted slightly differently. Online, AHD writes both ', though they do not always represent the same phoneme.

See alsoDeasaich

ReferencesDeasaich

External linksDeasaich